ASHRAE: FAQ on removal of SARS-CoV-2

ASHRAE’s latest Position article dated April 2020 on Infectious Aerosols

ASHRAE position paper issued April 14, 2020:

“UV germicidal irradiation . . . is an effective strategy for reducing the risk of dissemination of infectious aerosols in buildings. . . ”

“While UVGI is well researched and validated, many new technologies are not”.

“The entire UV spectrum can kill or inactivate microorganisms, but UV-C energy (in the wavelengths of 200 to 280 nm) provides the most germicidal effect, with 265 nm being the optimum wavelength. The majority of modern UVC lamps create UV-C energy at a near optimum 254 nm wavelength. UVGI inactivates microorganisms by damaging the structure of nucleic acids and proteins with the effectiveness dependent upon the UV dose and the susceptibility of the microorganism.”

HHS NIOSH CDC Upper Room UVGI Guide (2009)

EPA technical BRIEF on Biological Inactivation Efficiency of HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Devices

NASA article filtration of viruses.

CO2 Demand-Controlled Ventilation (DCV) History Theory & Myths, by Steve Di Giacomo, PE

Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) committee report on Germicidal Ultraviolet lamps

Reducing Infectious Disease Transmission in Buildings (PPT)

Airborne Spread of SARS-CoV-2 & Potential Role for Upper Room UVGI (JAMA article April 2020)

Kill Rates reported by ASHRAE

NOTE: SARS-CoV-2 (the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 disease), ultraviolet deactivation rate constant “k”, has not yet been experimentally determined in air; however, structurally, this virus is not unique and is similar to other coronaviruses such as SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) and MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome), accordingly it is reasonable to assume SARS-CoV-2 has a similar UV (deactivation) k-factor and thus is highly susceptible to ultraviolet deactivation.


UVGI is scientifically proven to deactivate viruses and bacteria in air, water and on surfaces. UVGI upper room wall packs, air-handler and plenum Lamp retrofit strategies are recommended by ASHRAE. However, there are a large number of factors that control and affect infection rates within buildings, therefore, there are no explicit or implicit guarantees or warranties that adopting and deploying UVGI technology will eliminate or significantly reduce infection rates or disease transmission rates within your building. Other factors that affect infection rates and disease transmission include, but is not limited to, zone temperature, zone relative humidity, ventilation effectiveness, zone pressurization, occupant densities, occupant densities of diseased occupants, air filtration, etc. EMA shall not be liable for or bound in any manner by, and Buyer has not relied upon, any express or implied, oral or written information, warranty, guaranty, promise, statement, inducement or representation pertaining to the subject technology including but not limited to, warranties of fitness or merchantability, regarding or with respect to the subject technology.


Association of Energy Engineers: "Project of the Year".

  • Excellence in Energy Engineering - Energy Optimization work performed at the Harvard School of Public Health in 2000.
  • Excellence in Energy Engineering - Demand-Controlled Ventilation work performed at Hewlett Packard in 2005.
  • Winner – Professional Development / Trainer Award 2018.

USGBC LEED Certifications where EMA provided Commissioning Services.


    • CI Harvard FAS Museum of Comparative Zoology - Cambridge (Mar 2015)
    • CI Harvard Grad. School of Education-Gutman Library-Cambridge, MA (Feb 2013)
    • CI Harvard GSE Long Distance Learning Center - Cambridge, MA (Jul 2010)
    • NC Audubon Wildlife Sanctuary - Wellfleet, MA (Aug 2008)
  • GOLD

    • CI Harvard FAS Molecular & Cellular Biology - Cambridge, MA (Aug 2011)
    • CI Harvard FAS Center for Brain Science - Cambridge, MA (Aug 2011)
    • CI Harvard FAS Chemical Teaching Labs - Cambridge, MA (Sep 2010)
    • CI Harvard FAS Biophysics Labs - Cambridge, MA (Aug 2010)
    • CI Harvard FAS Jacobson Chemistry Labs - Cambridge, MA (Jun 2010)



    • CI Brighton Public Library - Boston, MA (Dec 2011)
    • CI Beacon Capital Partners Corporate Offices - Boston, MA (Aug 2007)

    • NC Project Place Gatehouse - Boston, MA (Jul 2009)
    • Certified - NC Third Sector New England - Boston, MA (Aug 2005)


Welcome to EMA

EMA is a UVGI Lamp Systems Designer and project expeditor and consulting engineering firm specializing in Energy Engineering, ASHRAE Level 1-2-3 Energy Audits, and HVAC Controls Commissioning. EMA provides its customers with LEED™ Commissioning, Retro-Commissioning, Continuous Commissioning, Continuous Re-Commissioning, Real-Time Predictive Energy Models, investment grade energy audits, DOE2.2 supported energy simulations and traditional HVAC troubleshooting. As a member of the United States Green Building Council (USGBC), EMA encourages LEED™ Commissioning and Certification of sustainable energy-saving designs.



Steve Di Giacomo, PE, CEM, BCxP, GBE is a Registered Professional Engineer holding licenses in MA, RI, NY, NJ, PA and ME in Mechanical Engineering. He has recently completed UVGI Dosage-engineering studies for over 2 million square feet of class A high rise Boston financial district offices and assisted many New England towns re-open their public buildings and schools using UVGI lamp technology. He is an AEE Certified Energy Manager, and ASHRAE certified commissioning process management professional. Mr Di Giacomo has logged over thirty years of specialized Energy Engineering HVAC auditing, analysis, design, commissioning and facility operations experience with industrial, research, hospital, chemical, pharmaceutical and commercial facilities at both the site and corporate levels. He co-taught a popular NESEA 3-hour workshop "Lessons Learned from High Performance Buildings: What Went Wrong? Why did they not Perform?", is NESEA moderator, and a panelist at AEE Technology Roundtable events.. Mr. Di Giacomo has authored a number of articles on CO2 based demand-controlled ventilation (DCV) in both Engineered Systems Magazine and the Journal of Energy Engineering. Mr Di Giacomo was designated by ENERGY STAR as "Most Active Licensed Professional", certifying over 100 buildings each year for ENERGY STAR Awards, as well as provides e-Filings for BERDO and BEUDO and other Municipal Ordinances. Mr. Di Giacomo is the recipient of the 2018 Association of Energy Engineers’ Energy Professional Development (Trainer) Award for Region I / MA NH ME VT CT RI NY NJ and DE.